By Paul Hubert and Fabien Labondance
â€śAnimal spiritsâ€ť, also called â€śerrors of optimism and pessimismâ€ť or â€śsentimentsâ€ť, contribute to macroeconomic fluctuations, as has been pointed out by Pigou (1927) and Keynes (1936) and more recently by Angeletos and La’O (2013) . Quantifying these kinds of unobservable concepts is crucial for understanding how economic agents form their expectations and arrive at decisions that in turn influence the economy. In a recent working paper, â€śCentral Bank Sentiment and Policy Expectationsâ€ť, we examine this issue by analysing central bank communications and assessing their impact on expectations about interest rate markets. suite…»
By Pierre Cahuc and AndrĂ© Zylberberg
We would like to thank Xavier Ragot for permitting us to respond to his comments about our book, Le NĂ©gationnisme Ă©conomique [Economic Negationism]. Like many critics, Xavier Ragot considered that:
1) â€śThe very title of the book proceeds from great violence. This book is on a slippery slope in the intellectual debate that is heading towards a caricature of debate and verbal abuse.â€ť
2) The approach of our work is â€śscientisticâ€ť and â€śreductiveâ€ť, with â€śfaith in knowledge drawn from natural experimentsâ€ť that he doesnâ€™t believe has a â€śconsensus in economicsâ€ť.
3) We â€śwant to import the hierarchy of academic debate into the public debateâ€ť.
We would like to respond to these three allegations, with which we disagree.Â suite…»
By Xavier Ragot
The book by Pierre Cahuc and AndrĂ© Zylberberg is an injunction to take scientific truths about economics into account in the public debate, in the face of interventions that conceal private and ideological interests. The book contains interesting descriptions of the results of recent empirical work using natural experiments for the purpose of evaluating economic policies in the field of education, tax policy, the reduction of working hours, etc.
However, assertions in the book that are at the borderline of reason ultimately make it a caricature that is probably counter-productive. More than just the debate over the 35-hour working week or Franceâ€™s CICE tax credit, what is at stake is the status of economic knowledge in the public debate. suite…»
By CĂ©line Antonin
Since early 2015, the renewal of growth in Italy, the implementation of Act II of Matteo Renziâ€™s Jobs Act, and the reduction in business charges have undeniably contributed to the improvement on the countryâ€™s jobs front. Dynamic job creation, particularly with permanent (CDI) contracts, and an increase in the labour force, could give the impression that (partial) liberalization of Italyâ€™s labour market has resolved the structural weaknesses it has been facing. Nevertheless, in the first half of 2016, the creation of permanent jobs has severely dried up, and what is driving growth in employment now is an increase in fixed-term (CDD) contracts. Moreover, stagnating labour productivity has accompanied more employment-yielding growth, particularly in the services sector. So in the absence of further action to address Italyâ€™s structural weaknesses, the upturn in the labour market may not last. suite…»
The five-year term of French President Francois Hollande has been marked by serious economic difficulties, but also by some signs of improvement in the last year of his mandate. Overall, France experienced low growth from 2012 to 2014, mainly due to the fiscal consolidation policy, with moderate growth after that (see: OFCE, Policy Brief, no2, September 5th, 2016).
The scale of the fiscal shock at the start of Hollandeâ€™s mandate, when the government underestimated the negative impact on growth, proved to be incompatible with a fall in unemployment during the first half of the mandate. suite…»
By Odile Chagny (IRES)Â and Sabine Le Bayon
A year and a half after introducing a statutory minimum wage, the German Commission in charge of adjusting it every two years decided on 28 June to raise it by 4%. On 1 January 2017, the minimum will thus rise from 8.50 to 8.84 euros per hour. This note offers an initial assessment of the implementation of the minimum wage in Germany. We point out that the minimum wage has had some of the positive effects that were expected, helping to reduce wage disparities between the old LĂ¤nder (former West Germany) and the new LĂ¤nder (former East Germany), and between more skilled and less skilled workers. suite…»
By Catherine Mathieu
On 23 June 2016, the British people decided (by 52% to 48%) to leave the European Union. After having long criticized the functioning of the EU and the constraints that it placed on the United Kingdom, on 19 February 2016 David Cameron obtained an agreement intended to allow the UK to remain in the EU â€“ but it was not enough to convince the voters. In an OFCE Policy Brief (No.Â 1 of 13Â July), we analyze how the British peopleâ€™s concerns went beyond economic issues and that what counted was their desire to maintain (or regain) their political sovereignty. suite…»
The British peopleâ€™s vote for Brexit merely reinforces the political logic that has become an imperative. On the one hand, people want to be consulted, while on the other, Europe is summoned to change. FranĂ§ois Hollande believes that, “the vote of the United Kingdom is putting Europe to the test”; Alain JuppĂ© holds that, “we must write a new page, a new chapter, in the history of Europe”; the leaders of Franceâ€™s National Front, but not they alone, are calling for a referendum on Franceâ€™s membership in the EU and in the euro. Throughout Europe, debate along these same lines is underway. suite…»
The British vote to leave the European Union is aggravating the political crisis in Europe and in many European countries. Leaving the EU has become a possible alternative for the peoples of Europe, which may encourage parties advocating national sovereignty. The United Kingdomâ€™s departure automatically increases the weight of the Franco-German couple, which could destabilize Europe. If Scotland leaves the UK to join the EU, independence movements in other regions (Catalonia, Corsica, etc.) could seek a similar outcome. But the fragility of Europe also stems from the failure of the strategy of “fiscal discipline / structural reforms”. suite…»
After falling sharply over the past two years, oil prices have been rising once again since the start of the year. While a barrel came in at around 110 dollars in early 2014 and 31 dollars in early 2016, it is now close to 50 dollars.
Will this rise in oil prices put a question mark over the gradual recovery that seems to have begun in France in 2016?
In a recent study, we attempted to answer three questions about the impact of oil prices on French growth: will a change in oil prices have an immediate effect, or is there a time lag between the change and the impact on GDP? Are the effects of rises and falls in oil prices asymmetrical? And do these effects depend on the business cycle? The main results of our study can be summarized as follows: suite…»