Articles avec le tag ‘France’
By Eric Heyer
Six months following the signing of a national industry-wide agreement on unemployment benefits between the social partners, with new rules that normally are to apply until 2016, the French government, which wants to go further in reforming the labour market, is evoking the possibility of once again reforming the unemployment insurance system by reducing the level of benefits and the period they are paid.
It is far from clear that reforming the unemployment insurance system is in keeping with the idea that any reform must improve the “quality of life” of our citizens. This is, in any case, what is indicated by the latest publication of the OECD. suite…»
By Stéphane Hamayon and Florence Legros
Less than three years after the official retirement age in France was raised in 2010-2011, a new pension reform was passed in early 2014.
This reform is described by its promoters as “sustainable and equitable”. However, only a few months after it passed, if we once again review the mid- and long-term balance of the pension system, we would have to conclude that this subject needs another look (see our article in the Revue de l’OFCE, no. 137, 2014). The suspected imbalance stems from a gap between the assumptions that prevailed in 2014 when the reform passed and the actual development of critical macroeconomic variables such as unemployment and productivity growth. suite…»
La dévaluation fiscale française ou quand l’Achille français s’évertue à rattraper la tortue allemande
par Sarah Guillou
Dans les années 1980, dans le cadre du mécanisme de change du SME, la France avait à plusieurs reprises procédé à des réalignements monétaires assimilables à des dévaluations – en 1981, en 1982, en 1983 puis en 1986. L’Allemagne de son côté adoptait une rigoureuse – déjà ! – stratégie de désinflation compétitive qui, disait-on alors, conduisait à discipliner ses entreprises qui ne pouvaient compter sur des avantages temporaires obtenus par la dévaluation monétaire rendant les produits exportés compétitifs. Elles étaient contraintes de procéder aux investissements qui construisaient leur compétitivité hors-prix future. Ce qu’elles ont fait … suite…»
Chaque trimestre, l’Insee publie le taux de chômage au sens du Bureau International du Travail (BIT) : pour le 4ème trimestre 2013, en France métropolitaine, celui-ci est en baisse de 0,1 point, soit 41 000 chômeurs en moins. Parallèlement, chaque mois paraît le nombre de demandeurs d’emploi inscrits à Pôle Emploi : au cours du 4e trimestre 2013, cette source indique une hausse de 23 000 du nombre de demandeurs d’emploi inscrits en catégorie A. Dans un cas le chômage baisse, dans l’autre il augmente, ce qui ne permet pas de poser un diagnostic clair quant à l’évolution du chômage sur la fin d’année. suite…»
By Hervé Péléraux
According to the OFCE’s leading indicator, the French economy has grown by 0.5% in the fourth quarter of 2013. This result, which was anticipated, reflects the improvement in business surveys seen for about a year now. However, does this mark the return of GDP to a path of higher long-term growth? It is still too early to say.
The improvement in the business surveys anticipated the interruption in the second recession that took place in the first half of 2011. The national accounts then validated the signal emitted by the surveys, with renewed growth of 0.6% in the second quarter of 2013 (Table). GDP did of course fall again in the third quarter (-0.1%), but on average over the last two quarters there was growth of approximately 0.2% per quarter, a rate that, though very moderate, was still positive.
At the same time, the leading indicator, which aims to arrive at an estimate of GDP growth in the very short term by translating the cyclical information contained in the surveys, also pointed to a slow recovery in activity: on average over the last two quarters, growth was estimated at 0.1%, a figure that is slightly under the assessment of the national accounts.
In the last few months, the uncontested growth in the confidence of private agents has enhanced the outlook for the end of 2013: the debate is now focusing on the possibility for the French economy to break through a turning point upwards and for growth to settle in at a level higher than the pace of long-term growth (0.35% per quarter).
Based on past experience, when the indicator has sent out warning signs of a turning point in the economic cycle, the signal issued for the fourth quarter of 2013 is indicating that the long-term growth rate of the French economy is being crossed (Figure). This signal is fragile: the still very partial information on the first quarter of 2014, i.e. the business surveys for January, point towards the growth rate falling below its potential. The possibility of a real lasting recovery that is able to create jobs and reverse the trend in unemployment is thus still very uncertain.
Note on the leading indicator:
The leading indicator aims to forecast the quarterly growth rate for French GDP two quarters beyond the latest available data. The components of the indicator are selected from survey data sets that are rapidly available and unrevised. The selection of the data series is made on an econometric basis, starting from the business surveys carried out in different productive sectors (industry, construction, services, retail) and among consumers. Two series related to the international environment are also significant: the rate of growth of the real exchange rate of the euro against the dollar, and the real growth rate of oil prices.
Some components are at least two quarters in advance and as such can be used to predict GDP growth. Others are coincidental, or are not sufficiently advanced to make a forecast two quarters ahead. These series need to be forecast, but over a short-term horizon that never exceeds four months.
The leading indicator is calculated at the beginning of each month, shortly after the publication of the business and consumer surveys.
By Xavier Timbeau, Twitter: @XTimbeau
(published in Le Monde on Thursday 16 January 2014, p. 17)
When he was elected François Hollande made fiscal discipline his main goal. The 2008 crisis was continuing to have an impact on the developed economies; in the face of a sovereign debt crisis, Europe’s governments had been implementing austerity measures that were to cause a second recession, a “double dip”, to use the language of economists. For example, when François Hollande came to power, the situation in France seemed disastrous: the public deficit was 5.2%, with a rise in the public debt of more than 600 billion euros since 2008 along with a 2-point rise in unemployment (to 9.6% of the workforce). The pressure was intense, and, the euro zone states were falling like dominos, with Spain and Italy in danger of following Greece, Portugal and Ireland. In this context, it seemed that only budgetary discipline could help Germany to support a faltering euro zone. suite…»
By Loïc Charles and Guillaume Daudin*
Recurrent questions on our economies are, to quote a few: Which factors and actors are key for economic development? What private and public behaviors are particularly growth-enhancing? How important are institutions and policies in shaping trade, in promoting innovations and then growth?…There are different ways of enhancing our knowledge to answer these questions. The first way consists in laboratory experiments where a small-scale environment is created in order to understand “how the different pieces of the system work and interact” This is particularly appropriate for learning on social preferences and dealing with welfare issues. But, as soon as questions related to growth – such those mentioned above – are concerned, laboratory experiments do not appear very suitable. One other way of enhancing our knowledge consists in analyzing what happens today in our country and, possibly, to carry out international comparisons in order to disentangle between what is “good” and what is “bad” for the economy. Once one is engaged in that direction, why stop at comparison across space? Analyzing what happened several decades or centuries ago and to learn from these past experiences for the current period can also be very fruitful. suite…»
France has set up benefits such as RSA income support, PPE in-work negative income tax, CMU universal health care, the minimum pension, housing allowances, and exemptions from social security contributions for low-wage workers. From the other side, it has a tax on large fortunes; social insurance and family contributions apply to the entire wage; and capital income is hit by social security contributions and subject to income tax. France’s wealthy are complaining that taxation is confiscatory, and a few are choosing to become tax exiles.
Despite this, some people argue that the French tax-benefit (or socio-fiscal) system is not very redistributive. suite…»
La France a mis en place le RSA, la PPE, la CMU, le minimum vieillesse, les allocations logement, les exonérations de cotisations sociales pour les bas salaires. En sens inverse, elle a conservé un impôt sur les grandes fortunes ; les cotisations sociales maladie et famille portent sur la totalité du salaire ; les revenus du capital supportent les prélèvements sociaux et sont soumis à l’IR. Les plus riches se plaignent d’une fiscalité confiscatoire ; quelques-uns choisissent l’exil fiscal. suite…»
The government has announced that the trend in unemployment will be reversed by the end of 2013. The number of jobseekers registered in category A with France’s Pôle Emploi job centre at the end of September increased by 60,000. The number fell during August by 50,000, mainly due to a “bug” in sending SMS texts, which led to an unusually large rise in the number of terminations due to the claimant’s failure to stay up to date (up 72,000 over the previous month). An increase in enrolments for the month of September due to the re-registration of jobless people who had been unduly terminated was therefore expected. The number of jobseekers registered in category A thus rose by 10,000 between July and September 2013, which meant that the trend is still upwards but at a more moderate pace than earlier in the year. These large variations in the very short term in the numbers registered with the ANPE job centre make it impossible to give a precise idea of upcoming trends in employment and unemployment. Our analysis of the labour market up to 2014, which is set out in the latest OFCE forecasts of October 2013, suggests that no significant improvement in unemployment is expected by the end of 2014. suite…»